This map is a curious and, to some degree, insightful rendering of how the Earth works. It was prepared by Athanasius Kircher, who made it his business to try to understand ocean currents, try to understand hydrological activity, try to understand volcanic activity. And so, his maps are full of representations and some speculation about how the waters of the world connect to each other, how the volcanoes are arrayed, and so on. Very interested in those features and some of his theories, which had long underground passageways connecting one body of water with another, were interesting in their speculative character – not many of them proved to be true, but he was at least asking the questions that later scientists, hydrologists, and oceanographers were to explore.
For more details, view the catalog record: https://library.villanova.edu/Find/Record/1691570